Gifts of the Spirit
There are three biblical lists of the “gifts of the Spirit,” also known as spiritual gifts found in the New Testament. They are found in Romans 12:6–8, 1 Corinthians 12:4–11, and 1 Corinthians 12:28. We could also include Ephesians 4:11, but that is a list of offices within the church, not spiritual gifts, per se. The spiritual gifts identified in Romans 12 are prophesying, serving, teaching, encouraging, giving, leadership, and mercy. The list in 1 Corinthians 12:4–11 includes the word of wisdom, the word of knowledge, faith, healing, miraculous powers, prophecy, distinguishing between spirits, speaking in languages and the interpretation of languages. The list in 1 Corinthians 12:28 includes healings, helps, governments, diversities of languages.
We acknowledge that there are three main interpretations of 1 Corinthians 13:10 which refers to “when the perfect comes” that the gifts of prophecy, tongues, and knowledge will be done away. One clear clue to its interpretation is that something is coming to us, not that we are going anywhere to find the perfect, completed, or mature thing as stated in verse 10.
CBA agrees that the Biblical Canon View is the only view that agrees with the grammar, structure, and context of verse 10. However, disagreements in this view will not prevent churches or para-church organizations from joining the association.
- The Biblical Canon View
This view states that with the completion of the Biblical Canon, the gifts of prophecy, tongues, and knowledge were done away with. This view maintains that with the completion of the canon of Scripture there was no longer the need for gifts that brought authenticity to the apostle’s ministry in the first-century church. This view holds that the perfect “came” to believers.
- The Eschatological View
This view states that these gifts will be done away upon Christ’s return at the Second Coming after the Tribulation Period. Since Christ does not return to the earth at the rapture this view would hold that the gifts remain after the church is in heaven during the tribulation period. The major problem with this view is that in the context of 1 Corinthians 13 there is no mention of us leaving and going to heaven.
- The Maturity View
This view maintains that the gifts will continue to function until we go to heaven and we have received ultimate maturity in spiritual understanding. This view holds that either death or the rapture of the church would take us to heaven. The main problem with this view is that one would have to not agree with the grammar and structure of verse 10 that the perfect comes to us, but that we will go to the perfect.
A brief description of each gift follows:
Prophecy – The Greek word translated “prophecy” in both passages properly means “a speaking forth.” According to Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, the word refers to “discourse emanating from divine inspiration and declaring the purposes of God, whether by reproving and admonishing the wicked, or comforting the afflicted, or revealing things hidden; especially by foretelling future events.” To prophesy is to declare the divine will, to interpret the purposes of God, or to make known in any way the truth of God that is designed to influence people.
Serving – Also referred to as “ministering,” the Greek word diakonian, from which we get the English “deacon,” means service of any kind, the broad application of practical help to those in need.
Teaching – This gift involves the analysis and proclamation of the Word of God, explaining the meaning, context, and application to the hearer’s life. The gifted teacher is one who has the unique ability to clearly instruct and communicate knowledge, specifically the doctrines of the faith.
Encouraging – Also called “exhortation,” this gift is evident in those who consistently call upon others to heed and follow God’s truth, which may involve correction or building others up by strengthening weak faith or comforting in trials.
Giving – Gifted givers are those who joyfully share what they have with others, whether it is financial, material, or the giving of personal time and attention. The giver is concerned for the needs of others and seeks opportunities to share goods, money, and time with them as needs arise.
Leadership – The gifted leader is one who rules, presides over, or has the management of other people in the church. The word literally means “guide” and carries with it the idea of one who steers a ship. One with the gift of leadership rules with wisdom and grace and exhibits the fruit of the Spirit in his life as he leads by example.
Mercy – Closely linked with the gift of encouragement, the gift of mercy is obvious in those who are compassionate toward others who are in distress, showing sympathy and sensitivity coupled with a desire and the resources to lessen their suffering in a kind and cheerful manner.
Word of Wisdom – The fact that this gift is described as the “word” of wisdom indicates that it is one of the speaking gifts. This gift describes someone who can understand and speak forth biblical truth in such a way as to skillfully apply it to life situations with all discernment.
Word of knowledge – This is another speaking gift that involves understanding truth with an insight that only comes by revelation from God. Those with the gift of knowledge understand the deep things of God and the mysteries of His Word.
Faith – All believers possess faith in some measure because it is one of the gifts of the Spirit bestowed on all who come to Christ in faith (Galatians 5:22-23). The spiritual gift of faith is exhibited by one with strong and unshakeable confidence in God, His Word, His promises, and the power of prayer to effect miracles.
Healing – Although God does still heal today, the ability of men to produce miraculous healings belonged to the apostles of the first-century church to affirm that their message was from God. God still heals but it is not at the hands of people with the gift of healing. If they did, the hospitals and morgues would be full of these “gifted” people emptying beds and coffins everywhere.
Miraculous powers – Also known as the working of miracles, this is another temporary sign gift that involved performing supernatural events that could only be attributed to the power of God (Acts 2:22). This gift was exhibited by Paul (Acts 19:11-12), Peter (Acts 3:6), Stephen (Acts 6:8), and Phillip (Acts 8:6-7), among others.
Distinguishing (discerning) of spirits – Certain individuals possess the unique ability to determine the true message of God from that of the deceiver, Satan, whose methods include purveying deceptive and erroneous doctrine. Jesus said many would come in His name and would deceive many (Matthew 24:4-5), but the gift of discerning spirits is given to the Church to protect it from such as these.
Speaking in tongues – The gift of tongues is one of the temporary “sign gifts” given to the early Church to enable the gospel to be preached throughout the world to all nations and in all known languages. It involved the divine ability to speak in languages previously unknown to the speaker. This gift authenticated the message of the gospel and those who preached it as coming from God. The phrase “diversity of tongues” (KJV) or “different kinds of tongues” (NIV) effectively eliminates the idea of a “personal prayer language” as a spiritual gift. In addition, we see that the gift of tongues was always a known language and was not gibberish or an ecstatic utterance. We agree with the Apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians 14:10-15 that whether we sing or pray we are to do so with an understanding of what we are saying with our minds and will not speak like a barbarian or foreigner, but our language will be understood.
Interpretation of tongues – A person with the gift of interpreting tongues could understand what a tongues-speaker was saying even though he did not know the language that was being spoken. The tongues interpreter would then communicate the message of the tongues speaker to everyone else, so all could understand.
Helps – Closely related to the gift of mercy is the gift of help. Those with the gift of help are those who can aid or render assistance to others in the church with compassion and grace. This has a broad range of possibilities for application. Most importantly, this is the unique ability to identify those who are struggling with doubt, fears, and other spiritual battles; to move toward those in spiritual need with a kind word, an understanding, and compassionate demeanor; and to speak scriptural truth that is both convicting and loving.
Matthew 24:4-5; Acts 2:22; 19:11-12; 3:6; 6:8; 8:6-7; Romans 12:6–8; 1 Corinthians 12:4–11,28; 13:10; 14:10-15; Galatians 5:22-23; Ephesians 4:11